Guru Tegh Bahadur, an epitome of sacrifice (344th Shaheedi Diwas)

GuruTeghBahadurS1Amritsar, Punjab: The martyrdom of the ninth Sikh Guru Tegh Bahadur is a very important day in the religious calendar of the Sikhs. The occasion will be celebrated on November 24 by Sikhs all around the world. Scores of devotees take out huge processions and Kirtans are also sung to pay homage to the Guru. Sermons and lectures are also organized. Chairperson of the department of Guru Nanak studies, Panjab University, Jaspal Kaur said, “The translation of guru’s name ‘Tegh Bahadur’ is ‘master of the sword.’ However, he was master of the spiritual sword not the political one.” The guru always said, “be bold and fearless with others but not God.”

Amarjit Singh Kang, senior professor, department of Sikh studies, Kurukshetra University said, “Born on April 1, 1621, in Amritsar, the guru was the youngest of five sons of the sixth guru Guru Har Gobind.”

Guru Tegh Bahadur ji’s earlier name was Tiyag Mal. He took active part in wars against rulers along with his father Guru. Seeing his valour, his father named him ‘Brave of the Sword’ – Tegh Bahadur. “Guru Har Gobind Sahib ji institutionalized the concept of – Miri (political sword) and Piri (spiritual sword). He used to wear two swords which represented these two concepts.

During his adult life, the guru came up with a triple formula – Naam, Dan and Isnaan.

While Naam means to meditate (Waheguru), Daan is sharing one’s earnings and Isnaan (bath) before the morning prayers. He said those who followed these principles would free themselves from all worldly desires. On the advice of his father, Guru Tegh Bahadur ji went into seclusion and meditated for about 25 years at Bakaala village till year 1665 AD, following which he was offered Guruship. Later, the guru ji travelled up to Bengal and Assam. On the way, he stayed at Patna. It was at Patna that his son ‘Gobind Rai’ was born. The historian says once the guru played mediator between two rival kings in Assam and avoided bloodshed.

After about 5 years, he came back to Punjab and founded the city of Anandpur Sahib. Amarjit said, “Aurangzeb was the most cruel and dreaded king. He ruled India for over 50 years. He had imprisoned his sister, father (Shah Jahan), murdered all his brothers to become the king. To elevate his position in the eyes of his people, he posed to be a good Muslim.” “To please his community, he started converting Hindus to Muslims by force. Those who refused conversion were beheaded,” the scholar said.

Though Aurangzeb forcefully stated converting Hindus to Muslim religion in all Southern states, including Bengal, Bihar, Rajasthan, Gujarat etc. He also started the systematic and vigorous conversion of high caste Brahmins of Kashmir.

Amarjit said, “In 1675 AD, Guru Tegh Bagadur was arrested in Agra along with few of his followers and brought back to Delhi. He was asked to convert to Muslim religion. He was later asked to prove that he was a godly person and show miracles.”

To this, the guru replied, “It is an individual’s right to choose the religion he wants to follow. Showing miracles is against the will of god and laws of nature. I don’t fear death and am prepared to die.”

The guru was imprisoned in an iron cage. Three of his followers were killed in front of his eyes.

“His first follower was cut longitudinally into two pieces with a saw by fixing him in wooden planks, another was boiled in water and the third was burnt in cotton wool. With their face towards the Guru, the three Sikhs sacrificed themselves without any remorse. Yet the guru’s stand was firm,” the historian said. Following this, the Guru was beheaded in 1675 AD, the very place where Gurdwara Sis Ganj Sahib now stands in Delhi.

Source: TOI


  1. S. Khushwant Singh wrote:

    Guru Tegh Bahadar was arrested on fabricated charges and executed in Delhi on November 24, 1675.

    His body was stolen by one of his Dalit disciples, who burnt down his own thatched hut to cremate it. Gurdwara Sis Gunj in Chandni Chowk marks the site of his execution. Gurdwara Rakab Ganj, next to Parliament, is the site of his cremation.

    It was this wholly gratuitous act of criminality that made his son come to the conclusion that when all other methods have failed, it is righteous to draw the sword.

    To mark the martyrdom anniversary of Guru Tegh Bahadar, I reproduce my translation of one of his hymns — entitled Jo nar dukh mein dukh nahi manai — devoted to describing an ideal human being:

    He who in adversity grieves not;
    He who is without fear;
    He who falls not in the snare of sensuality;
    Who has no greed for gold, knowing it is like dust;
    He who does not slander people when their backs are turned;
    Nor flatters them to their faces;
    He who has neither gluttony in his heart;
    Nor vanity, nor attachment to
    worldly things;
    He whom nothing moves;
    Neither good fortune nor ill;
    Who cares not for worldly applause;
    Nor its censure;
    Who ignores every wishful fantasy;
    And accepts what comes his way at it comes;
    He whom lust cannot lure;
    Nor anger command;
    In such a one lives God himself;
    On such a one God’s Grace descends;
    For he knows the righteous path;
    O Nanak, his soul mingles with the Lord;
    As water mingles with water.

  2. There is a missing link.
    “Kashmiri brahmins went to Aurangzeb asking what he wants to stop killing Hindus. Aurangzeb asked them to bring to him the person whom they think is above all of them. So they went to Ananadpur sahib to Guru Teg bahadur ji.
    After conveying Aurangzeb’s will they asked Guru ji what to do? Where can they find someone who is above all? At this 9 yr old Gobind rai responded ” Father there is no one Greater than you”. So Guru ji went to Aurangzeb’s court in Delhi. He asked Guruji to convert to islam or die.
    It was then in the middle of Chandni Chowk, New Delhi that Auangzeb’s men beheaded Guru ji.
    Since then Guru ji got name of “Hind-ki-Chaadar” and it epitome of Sacrifice, Compassion and Fearless living.

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